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Aircraft Pitot-Static System

The Pitot-Static system is very important regarding FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS


STATIC PORT

Static Ports measure the STATIC PRESSURE (atmospheric pressure) that is independent of motion. Air has mass and air will always exert a force on us. This force varies with height as you go up in ALTITUDE pressure decreases and so does density so the static pressure decreases. AT MSL (Mean sea level) the standard pressure is 29.92 in. Hg. or 1013,25hPa.

Static Port(s) are located and mounted in an undisturbed airflow, free from any turbulence,…



PITOT TUBE

The pitot tube measures both DYNAMIC PRESSURE (ram pressure) and STATIC PRESSURE this gives TOTAL PRESSURE

STATIC PRESSURE + DYNAMIC PRESSURE = TOTAL PRESSURE

The pitot tube is mounted into the airstream and measures the incoming PRESSURE

if you are standing on the apron with no motion and you have a wind of 20kts the airspeed indicator will show 20kts

if you are moving at 20kts groundspeed and there is no wind you will have an airspeed of 20kts because that is the pressure of the air coming into the pitot tube

IMPORTANT: PITOT TUBE MEASURES PRESSURE so as you go up in Altitude the pressure drops and so your indicated airspeed will as well because fewer molecules enter the tube.



PITOT-STATIC

the Pitot static is basically, a pitot tube that as a static port mounted on it this is found on most pipers, Cessnas usually have them separate. The static port is located at the back so not facing the relative airflow. It also has a drain so that water, dirt and other articles may flow out and not blocking the pitot


REMOVE BEFORE FLIGHT

The pitot usually has a protection against dirt, water,… So when parking the aircraft you will mount a cover: REMOVE BEFORE FLIGHT and it should be removed when flying otherwise the pressure will be 0



FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS

The Altimeter, Airspeed Indicator (ASI) and the Vertical Speed Indicator are all connected to this system

ALTIMETER / VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR (VSI) / AIRSPEED INDICATOR (ASI) USE STATIC PRESSURE


ONLY THE AIRSPEED INDICATOR USES BOTH STATIC & DYNAMIC PRESSURE

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