Updated: Sep 18
Taps and Dies
A tap is used to cut threads on the inside of a hole, while a die is for cutting external threads on round stock. They are made of hard tempered steel and ground to an exact size. There are four types of threads that can be cut with standard taps and dies: National Coarse, National Fine, National Extra Fine, and National Pipe.
Hand taps are usually provided in sets of three taps for each diameter and thread series. Each set contains a taper tap, a plug tap, and a bottoming tap. The taps in a set are identical in diameter and cross section and the only difference is the amount of taper.
The taper tap is used to begin the tapping process, because it is tapered back for 6 to 7 threads. This tap cuts a complete thread when it is cutting above the taper. It is the only tap needed when tapping holes that extend through thin sections. The plug tap supplements the taper tap for tapping holes in thick stock.
The bottoming tap is not tapered. It is used to cut full threads to the bottom of a blind hole.
Dies may be classified as adjustable round split die and plain round split die. The adjustable split die has an adjusting screw that can be tightened so that the die is spread slightly. By adjusting the die, the diameter and fit of the thread can be controlled.
Solid dies are not adjustable. Therefore, a variety of thread fits cannot be obtained with this type. There are many types of wrenches for turning taps, as well as turning dies. The T-handle, the adjustable tap wrench, and the diestock for round split dies shown in Figure are a few of the more common types.
Layout and Measuring Tools
Layout and measuring devices are precision tools. They are carefully machined, accurately marked and, in many cases, are made up of very delicate parts. When using these tools, be careful not to drop, bend, or scratch them. The finished product is no more accurate than the measurements or the layout; therefore, it is very important to understand how to read, use, and care for these tools.
Rules are made of steel and are either rigid or flexible. The flexible steel rule bends, but it should not be bent intentionally as it may be broken rather easily. In aircraft work, the unit of measure most commonly used is the inch. The inch may be divided into smaller parts by means of either common or decimal fraction divisions.
The fractional divisions for an inch are found by dividing the inch into equal parts: halves (1⁄2), quarters (1⁄4), eighths (1⁄8), sixteenths (1⁄16), thirty-secondths (1⁄32), and sixty-fourths (1⁄64). The fractions of an inch may be expressed in decimals, called decimal equivalents of an inch. For example, 1⁄8 inch is expressed as 0.0125 (one hundred twenty-five tenthousandths of an inch).
Rules are manufactured in two basic styles — those divided or marked in common fractions and those divided or marked in decimals or divisions of one one-hundredth of an inch. A rule may be used either as a measuring tool or as a straightedge.
The combination set, as its name implies, is a tool that has several uses. It can be used for the same purposes as an ordinary tri-square, but it differs from the tri-square in that the head slides along the blade and can be clamped at any desired place. Combined with the square or stock head are a level and scriber. The head slides in a central groove on the blade or scale, which can be used separately as a rule.
The spirit level in the stock head makes it convenient to square a piece of material with a surface and at the same time tell whether one or the other is plumb or level. The head can be used alone as a simple level.
The combination of square head and blade can also be used as a marking gauge to scribe lines at a 45° angle, as a depth gauge, or as a height gauge. A convenient scriber is held frictionally in the head by a small brass bushing.
The center head is used to find the center of shafts or other cylindrical work. The protractor head can be used to check angles and also may be set at any desired angle to draw lines.
The scriber is designed to serve the aviation mechanic in the same way a pencil or pen serves a writer. In general, it is used to scribe or mark lines on metal surfaces. The scriber is made of tool steel, 4 to 12 inches long, and has two needle pointed ends. One end is bent at a 90° angle for reaching and marking through holes.
Before using a scriber, always inspect the points for sharpness. Be sure the straightedge is flat on the metal and in position for scribing. Tilt the scriber slightly in the direction toward which it will be moved, holding it like a pencil. Keep the scriber’s point close to the guiding edge of the straightedge. The scribed line should be heavy enough to be visible, but no deeper than necessary to serve its purpose. It is very important to use a scribe only where it is defining a line to be cut as scribed lines may introduce stress points where failures can occur.
Dividers and Pencil Compasses
Dividers and pencil compasses have two legs joined at the top by a pivot. They are used to scribe circles and arcs and for transferring measurements from the rule to the work.
Pencil compasses have one leg tapered to a needle point. The other leg has a pencil or pencil lead inserted. Dividers have both legs tapered to needle points.
When using pencil compasses or dividers, the following procedures are suggested:
Inspect the points to make sure they are sharp.
To set the dividers or compasses, hold them with the point of one leg in the graduations on the rule. Turn the adjustment nut with the thumb and forefinger. Adjust the dividers or compasses until the point of the other leg rests on the graduation of the rule that gives the required measurement.
To draw an arc or circle with either the pencil compasses or dividers, hold the thumb attachment on the top with the thumb and forefinger. With pressure exerted on both legs, swing the compass in a clockwise direction and draw the desired arc or circle.
The tendency for the legs to slip is avoided by inclining the compasses or dividers in the direction in which they are being rotated. In working on metals, the dividers are used only to scribe arcs or circles that are later removed by cutting. All other arcs or circles are drawn with pencil compasses to avoid scratching the material.
On paper layouts, the pencil compasses are used for describing arcs and circles. Dividers should be used to transfer critical measurements because they are more accurate than a pencil compass.
Calipers are used for measuring diameters and distances or for comparing distances and sizes. The three common types of calipers are inside, outside, and hermaphrodite calipers, such as gear tool calipers.
Outside calipers are used for measuring outside dimensions— for example, the diameter of a piece of round stock. Inside calipers have outward curved legs for measuring inside diameters, such as diameters of holes, the distance between two surfaces, the width of slots, and other similar jobs. A hermaphrodite caliper is generally used as a marking gauge in layout work. It should not be used for precision measurement.
There are four types of micrometer calipers, each designed for a specific use: outside micrometer, inside micrometer, depth micrometer, and thread micrometer.
Micrometers are available in a variety of sizes, either 0 to 1⁄2 inch, 0 to 1 inch, 1 to 2 inch, 2 to 3 inch, 3 to 4 inch, 4 to 5 inch, or 5 to 6 inch sizes. In addition to the micrometer inscribed with the measurement markings, micrometers equipped with electronic digital liquid crystal display (LCD) readouts are also in common use.
The AMT uses the outside micrometer more often than any other type. It may be used to measure the outside dimensions of shafts, thickness of sheet metal stock, the diameter of drills, and for many other applications.
The smallest measurement that can be made with the use of the steel rule is one sixty-fourth of an inch in common fractions and one one-hundredth of an inch in decimal fractions. To measure more closely than this (in thousandths and ten-thousandths of an inch), a micrometer is used. If a dimension given in a common fraction is to be measured with the micrometer, the fraction must be converted to its decimal equivalent. All four types of micrometers are read in the same way. The method of reading an outside micrometer is discussed later in this chapter.
The fixed parts of a micrometer are the frame, barrel, and anvil. The movable parts of a micrometer are the thimble and spindle. The thimble rotates the spindle, which moves in the threaded portion inside the barrel. Turning the thimble provides an opening between the anvil and the end of the spindle where the work is measured. The size of the work is indicated by the graduations on the barrel and thimble.
Using a Micrometer
The micrometer must be handled carefully. If it is dropped, its accuracy may be permanently affected. Continually sliding work between the anvil and spindle may wear the surfaces. If the spindle is tightened too much, the frame may be sprung permanently and inaccurate readings will result.
To measure a piece of work with the micrometer, hold the frame of the micrometer in the palm of the hand with the little finger or third finger, whichever is more convenient. This allows the thumb and forefinger to be free to revolve the thimble for adjustment.
A variation of the micrometer is the dial indicator, which measures variations in a surface by using an accurately machined probe mechanically-linked to a circular hand whose movement indicates thousandths of an inch or is displayed on a LCD screen.
A typical example would be using a dial indicator to measure the amount of runout, or bend, in a shaft. If a bend is suspected, the part can be rotated while resting between a pair of machined V-blocks. A dial indicator is then clamped to a machine table stand, and the probe of the indicator is positioned so it lightly contacts the surface. The outer portion of the dial is then rotated until the needle is pointed at zero. The part is then rotated, and the amount of bend, or run out, is displayed on the dial as the needle fluctuates. The total amount of the fluctuation is the runout.
Another common use for the dial indicator is to check for a warp in a rotating component, such as a brake disc. In some cases, this can be done with the brake disc installed on the airplane, with the base clamped to a stationary portion of the structure.
In either case, it is imperative that the dial indicator be securely fastened so that movement of the indicator itself induces no errors in measurement.
Slide Calipers Often used to measure the length of an object, the slide caliper provides greater accuracy than the ruler. It can, by virtue of its specially formed jaws, measure both inside and outside dimensions. As the tool’s name implies, the slide caliper jaw is slid along a graduated scale, and its jaws then contact the inside or outside of the object to be measured. The measurement is then read on the scale located on the body of the caliper or on the LCD screen. Some slide calipers also contain a depth gauge for measuring the depth of blind holes.